Marketing dictionary

  • A Posteriori

    An approach where a theoretical framework is developed from the research (after it has been conducted).
  • A Priori

    An approach where a theoretical framework is developed before the research is conducted.
  • Absolute Error

    see Total Error
  • Accompanied Shopping

    A form of observation study where an interviewer accompanies a respondent (with his or her agreement) as they go shopping.
  • Achieved Communality

    A term used in factor analysis that represents the proportion of variance in an original variable accounted for by all the extracted factors. Each original variable will have an achieved communality value in the factor analysis output
  • Acquiescence Bias

    A systematic bias caused by some respondents tending to agree with whatever is presented to them. Such a bias may be caused by either respondents or interviewers being overly friendly during interviews
  • Ad Hoc Research

    Research that is specifically designed to address a particular problem or issue. Ad hoc research is usually conducted when there is insufficient existing information. Ad hoc projects are usually single pieces of research rather than part of a continuous programme
  • Additive Causal Relationship

    A type of causal relationship in which the effect of two variables on a third variable is additive (ie one variable does not counteract the effect of the other variable).
  • Affective Component

    One of the three components of attitude that is concerned with individualsТ emotions or feelings towards an object or idea
  • Aggregate

    A summary measure made by compounding two or more separate measures, eg national income and price index numbers
  • Alert

    A means of informing a data collection company of a study authorisation and it usually includes a start date, delivery of materials, quota, timings and cost etc. Alerts can be made by e-mail, telephone or fax etc.
  • Alternative Hypothesis

    A statement that suggests a difference or an effect is present (ie there is an alternative). The alternative hypothesis is adopted when the null hypothesis has been disproved
  • Analyse (aka Analysis)

    The review of information gained from the responses to questionnaires completed for a study or other data and to arrive at conclusions or to make decisions and recommendations on the subject being studied
  • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

    An analysis of variance procedure in which the effects of one or more metric-scaled extraneous variables (covariates) are removed from the dependent variable data before one conducts ANOVA
  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

    A statistical technique for examining the differences among means for two or more populations
  • Anchor Label

    A label used to define an extremity of a measurement scale.
  • Anonymity

    Involves concealing respondentsТ identities from interviewers and/or researchers
  • Answer Cards

    see Prompt Material
  • Area Sampling

    A type of cluster sampling where geographical areas are the clusters
  • Artificiality

    The degree to which experimental conditions do not reflect real-life conditions. A high degree of artificiality reduces external validity (ie it becomes difficult to project the experimental results to the population of interest).
  • Association Technique

    A form of projective technique where participants are presented with some stimulus material and they are then asked to respond with the first thing that comes to their minds
  • Atomistic Test

    A test that aims to assess participantsТ reactions to individual elements of a product or concept (in contrast to a holistic test that looks at a product or concept as a whole).
  • Attempt

    When someone tries to contact a potential research participant, whether or not anyone is actually reached and whether or not the contact results in the potential respondent participating in some research
  • Attitude

    An individualТs learned predisposition to behave in a consistent manner towards an object or idea. There are three components of attitude: 1.A cognitive component - knowledge and beliefs. 2.An affective component - feelings and emotions. 3.A conative component - behaviour (usually measured in terms of likelihood to buy).
  • Attribute

    A word or phrase to describe a qualitative characteristic of an idea or object under consideration, eg gender is a attribute but age is a variable
  • Attribute Analysis

    A technique that is designed to develop lists of characteristics, uses or benefits relevant to a particular product category
  • Audit

    Has two definitions in the context of Marketing Research: Store Audit: A method of determining the number of product units that have been sold, by counting physical units in stores and combining that with a knowledge of the number ordered and stock levels. Project Audit: Involves visiting a project site to ensure all project specifications are being met and agreed procedures are being followed
  • Average

    A general term that is used to represent or summarise the relevant features of a set of values. The arithmetic mean is often used as a measure of average, but the median and the mode can also be used to summarise a set of values
  • Average Issue Readership

    The average number of people who read a particular publication.
  • Awareness

    A measure of respondentsТ knowledge of an object or an idea. There are two main measures of awareness: spontaneous (or unaided) and prompted (or aided) awareness
  • Baby Boomers

    People who were born between 1946 and 1964.
  • Back Checking

    see Validation
  • Back Translation

    A validation process where a survey is first translated into another language and then translated back into the original language by a different person. The objective is to ensure that the original translation is accurate
  • Balanced Scale

    A scale with an equal number of favourable and unfavourable categories
  • Banner Format

    A style of data tabulation where the responses from each sub-group are listed for each question in the survey.
  • Banner Point

    A column heading in banner format tabulations and corresponds to a particular sub-group of the sample. It is usual practice to have the independent variables as banner points
  • Bar Chart

    A type of graph where the data is displayed in the form of bars that can be arranged vertically or horizontally
  • Base

    The required number of interviews to be completed
  • Base Line

    The result of a study conducted to obtain a snapshot or reading of current conditions prior to some change in market conditions or the introduction of some test conditions. The result is then used as a standard for comparison with subsequent studies
  • Baysian Analysis

    A mathematical procedure based on decision theory that aims to estimate the value of a market research project
  • Benefit Segmentation

    The dividing of potential consumers into sub-groups according to the benefits sought.
  • Best Light Phenomenon

    When respondents bias their answers in a market research project so that they can then appear in the best possible way to those who are looking at the responses
  • Bias

    A general term referring to the inaccuracy in a research study caused by non-sampling errors.
  • Biased Question

    A question that is phrased or expressed in such a way that it influences the respondentТs opinion. Such questions may provide information that leads a respondent to consider the subject in a specific way. Bias may also be introduced through verbal or facial expressions, body language or by paraphrasing the original question
  • Biased Sample

    A sample that does not contain units in the same proportion as the population of interest
  • Bimodal Distribution

    A frequency distribution with two modes
  • Binomial Test

    A statistical test of dichotomous data (where there are two possible outcomes) to check whether the research data is significantly different to what would be expected
  • Bipolar Adjectives

    Two opposing adjectives that define the opposite ends of a scale (such as a Semantic Differential Scale).
  • Bipolar Scale

    A type of scale whose extremities are defined by two opposing adjectives
  • Bivariate Analysis

    The analysis of a relationship between two variables
  • Bivariate Regression

    A procedure for deriving the equation that relates a single metric dependent variable and a single metric independent variable
  • Blind Testing

    The testing of products with potential consumers where brand names, packaging and other identifying items have been removed
  • Blocking Factor

    The relevant external variable that is used to group (or block) experimental units into groups so that the experimental group and the control group are matched.
  • Booster

    Additional interviews involving a particular sub-group of a sample to ensure there are sufficient members of the sub-group in the resulting sample
  • Brainstorming Sessions

    A creative method of coming up with new ideas or solutions to a problem by generating a large number of ideas without subjecting them or the person who suggested them to critical evaluation. They can also be referred to as "ideation sessions".
  • Brand

    A product or service to which human beings attach a bundle of tangible (functional product and service characteristics) and intangible (emotional and/or symbolic) meanings that add value. A brand has one strategic purpose and that is to differentiate itself from competitors
  • Brand Awareness

    A measure or indication of the readiness with which a brand springs to mind
  • Brand Equity

    A term developed to describe the financial value of a brand to the bottom line profit of a business
  • Brand Essence

    The set of core values that define a brand. These values remain constant over time even though the executional characteristics of packaging, advertising (and other marketing variables) may change. By defining the brand essence with clarity, a brand owner creates a template against which all marketing and NPD activity can be developed and integrated
  • Brand Image

    The total impression created in the mind of a potential consumer by a brand and all its functional and emotional associations. The total image can be seen as the sum of several images such as the product, user, occasion, service and personality images
  • Brand Loyalty

    A general term used to describe the extent to which consumers buy or use a brand in preference to other brands. In practice consumers often buy or use several brands, therefore brand loyalty is a relative measure
  • Brand Personality

    An expression of the fundamental core values and characteristics of a brand, described and experienced as human personality traits, eg friendly, intelligent, innovative etc. It is an expression of the relationship between the consumer and the brand
  • Brand Positioning

    The location of a brand in relation to its competitors in some pre-defined space. The space may be defined by criteria used by consumers, such as "value for money" or "age of consumer" etc
  • Brand Proposition

    A sentence or phrase that encapsulates the brand benefits, eg a brand with technical superiority or a brand that guarantees next-day delivery. Often a brand benefit is translated into an end-line that becomes part of the brand communication on advertising, packaging or promotions, eg "the world's favourite airline"
  • Brand Share

    The percentage of sales of a specific product category that are accounted for by one brand. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units sold.
  • Branding

    Has two meanings: The process, which may take decades, by which a brand comes to have added values and involves long-term support by communications either above or below the line. The associative strength between an advertisement (usually) and a brand expressed as a positive or negative relationship, ie "well branded" or "poorly branded".
  • Brief

    Can have two similar meanings in the context of marketing research: A Brief can be a statement (usually in writing) of a business problem that could be alleviated by conducting some marketing research. Briefs are normally written by a client company for a research supplier and they usually have a background and an objectives section. A suggested methodology section can also be included. A Briefing can be a training session prior to starting work on a study in which all specifications and details of the study are reviewed. This is generally followed by practice (or pilot) interviews where they are being used.
  • Business-to-Business Interviews

    see Executive Interviews
  • Buying Rate

    The average volume purchased per buyer over the period of an analysis
© Add Up Research, 2007-2012


02.02.2012 Participation in TV program about Google technology
The topic of the movie - Google Search Engine technologies

27.10.2011 Russian business possesses hidden potential
The interview with the owners and managers of new investment projects demonstrate that Russian business possesses huge hidden potential. The possibilities of growth are reserved in the all-inclusive approach to creation of the business project management system and implementation of modern tools.

20.05.2011 ADD UP Research marketing agency provided the results of the research: Internet Software Store Interface Perception.
Our company has finished the research of perception of the Internet Software Store.

18.02.2011 Online focus-groups: initiative project carried out
ADD UP Research agency implemented the initiative project for carrying out focus-groups. The focus groups within the mutual project between ADD UP Research and Tiburon Research has been carried out successfully.